The Ego and Analysis of Defense, by Paul Gray, without a doubt represents a major advance in analytic technique. This book, together with the series of seminal journal articles he published over the past 30 years are a testament to Gray's pioneering intellect. They have stirred up enormous interest and controversy about the most important part of psychoanalytic technique: how the analyst listens. This second edition of Gray's book contains four additional papers, two of them known to his readership from their publication in 1996 and 2000. The two others contain ideas not published before.